Personalization as a goal of educational technology can take a number of forms. But when talked about in a North American context, it generally refers to small set of goals.
Self-pacing, in educational technology, regards the use of technology to teach students at different paces, based on their individual capacity. The claim that Self-paced Instruction Is a Faster Pace for All asserts that most children who can go at their own pace will excel and equal or higher levels than those held to the pace of Whole Class Instruction.
Learning Styles is the idea that "different people learn differently", and specifically, that matching personal cognitive styles to learners can increase learning and comprehension.
Targeted Instruction is the idea that students are confused for very specific and individual reasons, and that computers can be used to diagnose and remediate these gaps.